What Is Heart Attack Or Myocardial Infarction? What Are The Causes & Risk Factors.

heart attack

What Is A Heart Attack?

A heart attack is also known as myocardial infarction which results from an obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart. This sudden cut-off of the blood supply devoids the heart muscles of oxygen and nutrients required to function that results in chest pain which is also defined or known as angina. If the blood flow is not replaced to the heart muscles within the time period of 20 to 40 minutes as it causes the irreversible death of the heart muscle. Muscle endure dying for 6 to eight hours at which the time the heart attack is finished and therefore the dead muscles of the heart are replaced by the scar tissue.

Heart disease is a growing epidemic within the world today during which cardiovascular disease is the topmost explanation for death globally. Lifestyle changes and urbanization have led to an increase in various problems of the heart.

What Causes A Heart Attack?

An attack takes place when one or more coronary arteries become blocked. A buildup of fatty deposits that Involves the cholesterol from a substance which is plaque and can constrict the arteries which are called coronary artery disease the causes most heart attacks.

During a time of the attack, plaque ruptures and spills cholesterol and other substances. Those substances enter into the bloodstream where the blood clot forms at the location of rupture and if the clot is large it can block blood flow through the coronary artery causing starving the heart of oxygen and nutrients which is known as ischemia.

You might have a full or also partial blockage of the coronary artery in which the complete blockage means you have had an ST-elevation myocardial infarction and if the blockage is partial then it defines that you have a non- ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Another cause of a heart attack is a cramp of the coronary artery which shut down the flow of blood to the heart muscles. Consuming tobacco and the drugs such as cocaine can also cause a life-threatening spasm.

Infection with COVID-19  is the major cause that damages your heart in ways that lead to a heart attack.

Risk Factors

Certain component contributes to the unwanted buildup of fatty deposits that narrows the arteries. You can eliminate and can also improve many of these risk factors to reduce the risk of having a first or another heart attack. The risk factors include:

  • Age–  Age of men who are 45 or older and women age 55 years or even older are more likely to have a heart attack in comparison with the younger men and women.
  • Tobacco– This includes smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke for the future.
  •  High blood pressure– High blood pressure also can damage the arteries that lead to your heart whereas it is commonest in people with obesity, high cholesterol, and also diabetes.
  • High blood cholesterol–  A high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is likely to constrict your arteries. A high level of cholesterol’ a type of blood fat related to your diet which also increases the risk of your heart attack. A high-level density lipoprotein cholesterol may lower your risk.
  • Obesity– It is linked with high blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Losing 10% of your body weight can lower the risk.
  •  Diabetes– Not producing enough of a hormone secreted by your pancreas or not responding to insulin properly cause your blood glucose level to rise which also increase the danger of your heart attack.
  • Metabolic Syndrome– This syndrome occurs when you have obesity, high blood sugar, or pressure. Having this syndrome makes you twice as likely to develop heart disease than if you don’t have it.
  • Family history of heart attacks– If your siblings, parents, or grandparents have had heart attacks then you might be at increased risk.
  • Lack of physical activity–  Inactive body contributes to high blood cholesterol levels and obesity whereas those people who exercise regularly have better health including low blood pressure.
  • Stress– You might respond to stress in a way that can increase the risk of having a heart attack.
  • An autoimmune condition– Having a condition such as rheumatoid arthritis can also increase the risk of a heart attack.
  • A history of preeclampsia– It causes high vital signs during pregnancy to extend the lifetime risk of heart disease.
  • Illicit drug use– Using stimulants such as cocaine can trigger a spasm of your coronary arteries that can cause a heart attack.