What is Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia?
It is an unfamiliar type of cancer of the bone marrow, the spongy tissue inner bones where blood cells are made. It causes a raised number of white blood cells in the blood.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia can also be known as chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia. However, it typically influences older adults and rarely occurs in children, though it can occur at any age.
Advances in treatment have supplied a greatly increased prognosis for people with chronic myelogenous leukemia. However, severe people will accept remission and live for many years after diagnosis.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Symptoms
Chronic myelogenous leukemia often does not create signs and symptoms. However, it might be detected during a blood exam. When they may occur, sign and symptoms may include:-
- Bone pain
- Easy bleeding
- Experiencing full after eating a small amount of food
- Experiencing run-down or tired
- Weight loss without trying
- Loss of appetite
- Pain or fullness bottom the ribs on the left side
- Severe sweating during sleep time
Causes of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
However, this leukemia may occur when something goes awry in the genes of your bone marrow cells. It is not plain what initially sets off these methods, but the consultant has discovered how it progresses into chronic myelogenous leukemia.
An abnormal chromosome builds
Human cells generally hold 23 pairs of chromosomes. However, these chromosomes contain the DNA that contains the instructions (genes) that manage the cells in your body. In people who have chronic myelogenous leukemia, the chromosomes in the blood cells exchange sections with each other. A section of chromosome 9 handles with a section of chromosome 22, generating an extra-short chromosome 22 and an extra-long chromosome 9.
However, the extra short chromosome 22 is known as the Philadelphia chromosome, named for the city where it was developed. The Philadelphia chromosome is near in the blood cells of 90% of people with chronic myelogenous leukemia.
The abnormal chromosome generates a new gene
However, the Philadelphia chromosome generates a new gene. Genes from chromosome 9 connect with genes from chromosome 22 to create a new gene known as BCR-ABL. However, the BCR-ABL gene holds instructions that the abnormal blood cell produces a severe protein known as tyrosine kinase.
The new gene allows severely diseased blood cells
Your blood cells start in the bone marrow, a spongy material inner your bones. When your bone marrow functions generally, it generates immature cells in a managed way. However, these cells then mature and specialize into the several kinds of blood cells that circulate in your body.
In chronic myelogenous leukemia, this method does not work properly. The tyrosine kinase affected by the BCR-ABL gene allows severe white blood cells to grow. However, severe or all of these cells hold the abnormal Philadelphia chromosome.
Some factors that increase the risk of chronic myelogenous leukemia:-
- Older age
- Being male
- Radiation exposure, like radiation therapy for certain types of cancer
Exams and procedures used to diagnose chronic myelogenous leukemia include:-
- Physical test: Your consultant will test you and check such vital signs as pulse and blood pressure. He or she will also experience your lymph nodes, spleen, and abdomen to decide whether they are enlarged.
- Blood exams: A complete blood count may disclose abnormalities in your blood cells, like a severe number of white blood cells.
- Bone marrow exams: Bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration are used to gather bone marrow samples for laboratory exams.
- Tests to look for the Philadelphia chromosome: Specialized exams, like fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and the polymerase chain reaction exam, examine blood or bone marrow samples for the existence of the Philadelphia chromosome or the BCR-ABL gene.
Phases of chronic myelogenous leukemia
The phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia may refer to the aggressiveness of the problem. Your health consultant determines the phase by examining the proportion of diseased cells to healthy cells in your blood or bone marrow. However, a greater proportion of diseased cells means chronic myelogenous leukemia is at a more modern stage. Different phases of chronic myelogenous leukemia may include:-
- Chronic: This is the first phase and normally has the best response to treatment.
- Accelerated: This phase is a transitional phase when the disease becomes severe aggressive.
- Blast: This phase is a huge, aggressive phase that becomes life-threatening.