Common health issue

What is Anal Cancer? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment Methods.

What is Anal Cancer?

Anal cancer is an unfamiliar malignancy that begins in the anus the opens at the end of the rectum. The American Society of Clinical Oncology evaluates that 8,300 cases of anal cancer will be diagnosed in 2019. And about 1,280 deaths will happen that year through anal cancer.

Approximately half of all anal cancers are diagnosing before the malignancy has increased beyond the primary part. Whereas about 13% to 25% are diagnosing after cancer has increased to the lymph nodes. Similarly, about 10% are diagnosing after cancer has increased to distant organs. When it builds early, anal cancer is severally treatable.

Who gets anal cancer?

However, several anal cancers are treating in people who are over age 60. Before age 35, anal cancer is more familiar in men. However, after age 50, anal cancer is a bit more familiar in women. However, the incident rate of anal cancer is six times greater in unmarred men as compared to married men.

Receptive anal relation is forcefully relating to the development of anal cancer. Anal infection with human papillomavirus outcoming in genital warts is the main risk factor for cancer. However, immunocompromising patients, like those with HIV disease, are prone to get anal cancer. In this subgroup, the prognosis is poor than for non-immunocompromising patients.

What are the types of anal cancer?

However, there are several types of anal cancer. A tumor is an abnormal increase in the body. It may either be benign or malignant. Malignant tumors may increase to other areas of the body over time if left untreated. Examples of tumors may include:-

  • Benign tumors: In the anus, this tumor may include polyps, skin tags, granular cell tumors, and genital warts.
  • Precancerous situations: This may refer to benign tumors that may become malignant over time, which is familiar in anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (ASIL).
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: It is the most familiar type of anal cancer in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, it reports for 9 out of 10 cases. These tumors in the anus are affected by abnormal squamous cells (cells that line most of the anal canal).
  • Bowen’s disease: This disease can be characterized by abnormal cells on anal surface tissue that haven’t invaded deeper layers.
  • Basal cell carcinoma: However, it is a type of skin cancer that normally affects skin exposure to the sun. Because of this, it is a very rare type of anal cancer.
  • Adenocarcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that starts from the glands surrounding the anus.

What are the symptoms of anal cancer?

However, the most familiar symptom associating with anal cancer is bleeding. Because anal itching can also be a symptom of anal cancer, several people initially attribute their bleeding and itching to hemorrhoids. This can detain the diagnosis of anal cancer.

Other possible signs and symptoms of anal cancer are:-

  • Pain or pressure in the anal part
  • Unusual discharge from the anus
  • Lump close the anus
  • Change in bowel habits

How is anal cancer diagnosing?

Anal cancer may be detectable during a routine digital rectal exam or a minor procedure, like removal of what is believing to be hemorrhoid. However, cancer may also be detectable with more invasive procedures, like an anoscopy, proctoscopy, or endorectal ultrasound.

However, if cancer is feeling, a biopsy should be done and the specimen checked by a pathologist. Staging workup can include an abdominal and pelvic CT scan, a pelvic MRI scan to evaluate the pelvic lymph nodes, a chest x-ray, and liver function researches.

How is anal cancer-treating?

Depending on your age and stage of cancer, there are more treatment options that health consultant may offer you, either by themselves or in combination:-


However, it can be more useful to kill cancer cells and prevent them from increasing. This therapy can be useful in the body or taken orally. Pain relievers may also be useful intermittently to manage symptoms.


It is more useful to separate a tumor in the anus along with some healthy tissue around it. However, this procedure is most familiar with people whose cancer is in the lower area of the anus and has not increase to severe nearby structures.

Abdominoperineal (AP) resection is a severe invasive surgery. This surgery is booked for people who haven’t answered well to other treatments or who are late-stage. However, it may involve making an incision in the abdomen to separate the anus, rectum, or areas of the sigmoid colon.

Alternative therapy

Radiation therapies are most familiar for many forms of cancer, like cancer of the anus. X- rays and some other radiations are useful to remove cancer cells in the body, though they may also remove surrounding healthy tissue. However, this treatment is non-invasive and usually connects with other cancer treatments.