What Is Hemorrhagic Stroke?
A hemorrhagic stroke can happen when blood from an artery begins bleeding into the brain after a blood vessel bursts. Hemorrhagic strokes make up 13% of stroke cases. They are usually caused by weak vessels that rupture and bleed into the surrounding brain. The blood accumulates and compresses the surrounding tissue of the brain. Two weakened blood vessels mainly cause hemorrhagic stroke: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations.
There are usually two main types of hemorrhagic stroke.
- Intracranial hemorrhage means when bleeding occurs inside the brain.
- Subarachnoid hemorrhages mean when bleeding occurs between the brain and the membranes that cover it.
This is known as an ischemic stroke when a blockage causes a stroke in an artery that reduces blood flow to the brain.
What Can Be The Causes?
Hemorrhagic stroke is caused by sudden bleeding from blood vessels inside the brain or in the space between the brain. Sudden bleeding may result from:
- Head injuries
- Cerebral aneurysm
- High blood pressure
- Drug abuse
- Brain tumor
- Liver disease
- Bleeding disorder or sickle cell anemia
- Blood vessels abnormalities
Risk Factor Specific To Hemorrhagic Stroke
Risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke include the following bullets listed below:
- High level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
- Genetic factors and family history
- High blood pressure
- A previous brain aneurysm
- A history of heart disease or stroke
- Experiencing a viral infection that can cause inflammation, such as rheumatoid arthritis
- Exposure to air pollution
- High level of stress and anxiety
- Low levels of exercise
- Not having a nutritious diet
- The use of recreational drugs such as cocaine
- A high alcohol consumption
- A lack of sleep
- Using blood-thinning medication, such as warfarin
Symptoms Of A Hemorrhagic stroke
A person experiencing symptoms of a stroke requires immediate emergency care. The sooner medical treatment begins, the fewer brain cells are damaged. Symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke can vary from person to person, but they are almost always present immediately after the stroke.
Symptoms may involve:
- limited loss of consciousness
- nausea and vomiting
- severe headache
- loss of balance
- disorientation or confusion
- problem with speech
- difficulty swallowing
- sensitivity to light
- hand tremors
- abnormal taste in the mouth
- paralysis of one side of the body
Treatment Of Hemorrhagic Stroke
Patients who have symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke need to seek immediate emergency medical care. Prompt medical attention may prevent life-threatening complications. The goal of treatment for hemorrhagic stroke is to stop the bleeding and reduce the pressure in your brain. The treatment of hemorrhagic stroke mostly depends on what caused it, where it is located, and the size of the bleeding.
Emergency Treatment For A Hemorrhagic Stroke
Immediate emergency care is most crucial for hemorrhagic stroke. This treatment focuses on controlling the bleeding in your brain and reducing the pressure usually caused by the bleeding.
Drugs can reduce blood pressure or slow the bleeding if you experience a hemorrhagic stroke while on blood thinners; you are at particular risk for excessive bleeding due to this condition. Drugs to counteract the combined effect of blood thinners are given immediately during emergency treatment.
The treatment of a hemorrhagic stroke depends upon the cause of the bleeding, that is, high blood pressure, use of anticoagulant medication, blood vessel malformation, etc. Most patients are observed closely in an intensive care unit (ICU) during and after a hemorrhagic stroke. The initial care of a person with a hemorrhagic stroke includes several components:
- determining the cause of the bleeding
- stopping any medication that could increase bleeding (e.g., warfarin, aspirin )
- controlling the blood pressure
- measuring and controlling the pressure with the brain
A surgical procedure may be recommended to stop or prevent bleeding or reduce the pressure inside the skull. Depending upon the stroke severity and the patient’s general condition, surgery may be done within the first 48 to 72 hours after the bleeding. It may be delayed until one to two weeks to allow the patient’s condition to get stable.
An aneurysm is a blood vessel that contains a weak area that ballons out. If the site gets ruptured and bleeds, a hemorrhagic stroke occurs. A clamp can be placed at the aneurysm’s base to prevent bleeding before a stroke. This surgery requires removing a piece of the skull and locating the aneurysm within the brain’s tissue. This procedure is done after the patient is given general anesthesia, often requiring several hours to complete. The piece of skull is replaced at the end of the surgical procedure.
Arteriovenous Malformation Treatment
Some AVMs have a significant risk of further bleeding, so the decision to treat an AVM depends on the patient’s age. AVM location, size, abnormalities of the veins that drain the malformation, and whether or not the AVM has previously bled. Treatment could include surgery, radiosurgery, or embolization techniques.
Last Updated on October 11, 2023 by anup