What is a Coma? Types, Causes, Treatments, and Prognosis 2023

What is a Coma?

A coma is an extended state of unconsciousness. During a coma, a person is languid in their environment. However, the person is alive and seems like they are sleeping. However, unlike in a sound sleep, the person cannot be knock up by any stimulation, including pain.

What causes a coma?

However, comas are affected by an injury to the brain. Brain injury can be due to the raised pressure, bleeding, loss of oxygen, or buildup of toxins. However, the injury can be short-term and reversible. It also can be long-term.

However, severe than 50 percent of comas are connected to head trauma or disturbances in the brain’s circulatory system. Problems that can guide to coma may include:-

Anoxic brain injury

However, this is a brain situation caused by a total lack of oxygen to the brain. The absence of oxygen for few minutes causes cell death to brain tissues. This injury may outcome from a heart attack, head injury or trauma, drowning, drug overdose, or poisoning.


Does Trauma cause Coma? Head injuries can create the brain to swell and/or bleed. When the brain expands as an outcome of trauma, the fluid sends up against the skull. However, the expansion may eventually cause the brain to press down on the brain stem, which can harm the RAS, a part of the brain that is answerable for arousal and awareness.

Swelling Can Cause Coma

Expands of brain tissues can occur even without distress. Sometimes the absence of oxygen, electrolyte imbalance, or hormones can create swelling.


When there is no blood flow to the brain stem, or the dropping of blood goes with swelling, coma can occur.

Blood sugar

Can high blood sugar cause Coma? In people with diabetes, a coma can happen when blood sugar levels stay very high. That’s a situation called hyperglycemia. Blood sugar that’s too low can also guide to a coma.

Oxygen deprivation

Oxygen is crucial for brain function. Cardiac arrest creates an unexpected cutoff of blood flow and oxygen to the brain, known as hypoxia or anoxia. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), remnants of cardiac arrest are often in comas.


Infections of the central nervous system, like meningitis or encephalitis, can also create a coma issue.

What are the different types of coma?

Different types of coma may include:-

  • Toxic-metabolic encephalopathy: However, this is an acute situation of brain dysfunction with signs of confusion and/or delirium. The situation is usually reversible. However, the causes of toxic-metabolic encephalopathy have differed. They embrace systemic illness, infection, organ failure, and other situations.
  • Persistent vegetative state: However, this is a state of many unconsciousness. The person is unknowing of their surroundings and unable of voluntary movement. With a persistent vegetative state, someone may advance to wakefulness but with no higher brain function.
  • Medically induced: However, this kind of short-term coma, or huge state of unconsciousness, is useful to manage the brain from swelling after an injury. However, the remnants receive a controlling dose of an anesthetic, which causes an absence of feeling or awareness. Health consultants then closely watch the person’s vitals.

Is there an effective treatment for coma?

Effective treatment for a coma depends on the cause. People who contact the comatose patient should give consultants as much information as accessible to support the consultants determine the cause of the coma. Prompt medical awareness is vital to treat potentially reversible situations. For instance, if there is a problem that affects the brain, antibiotics may be required. Glucose may be needs in the event of a diabetic shock. Surgery may also be compulsory to mitigate the pressure on the brain due to swelling or to stop a tumor.

However, certain drugs may also support relieve the swelling. Medication may also be useful in removing seizures if compulsory. In general, effective treatment for a coma is supportive. People in comas are sought after in an intensive care unit and may often need full life support until their condition improves.

What’s the prognosis for a coma?

However, the prognosis for a coma differs with each condition. The chances of a person’s improvement depend on the cause of the coma, whether the issues can be correcting, and the duration of the coma. If the issue may be resolving, the person can often come back to their original level of functioning. Sometimes, though, if the brain harm is severe, a person may be long-term disabled or never regain consciousness.

Last Updated on October 10, 2023 by anup