Common health issue

Purpura: Causes, Sign And Symptoms And Treatment


What Do You Mean By Purpura?

Purpura is a purple-colored rash and patches on the skin and in the mucus membranes, including the lining of the mouth; it usually occurs when small blood vessels leak blood under the skin. Purpura measures between 4 and 10 millimeters in diameter, but when purpura spots are less than 4 mm in diameter, they are called petechiae. Purpura spots that are more than 1cm are called ecchymoses.

It is also known as skin hemorrhage, which can signal several problems, ranging from minor injuries to life-threatening infections. It is a symptom rather than a disease for several reasons. Purpura will not change color when pressed. The rash usually looks like tiny clusters of brushes, but the skin should not be itchy, suggesting a cause rather than purpura.

Types of purpura

The doctor breaks purpura rashes into two categories based on the count of the platelets. Platelets are cell fragments that help blood clot more effectively, preventing dangerous

  • Thrombocytopenia purpuras- platelets count is low, suggesting the underlying clotting disorders.
  • Nonthrombocytopenia purpuras- Platelet levels are normal, which suggests another cause.

To treat purpura, doctors must determine its causes where the purpura does not lower platelets levels (nonthrombocytopenia ) has a range of causes and risk factors, including;

  • Blood vessel deterioration is associated with the age of the people.
  • A lack of vitamin C is also called scurvy.
  • An infect from births the blood vessels
  • Some drugs, such as steroids. purplish-red rash
  • Disorders and infections present from birth that cause abnormalities in blood vessels, such as rubella.
  • Injury
  • A drug that affects the clotting factors
  • Senile purpura

Purpura with a lowered platelet count (Thrombocytopenia) has a potential cause;

  • Drugs that reduce the platelet count
  • Recent blood transfusions
  • Systemic lupus erythema
  • Severe infections, including HIV

There are usually three leading causes of purpura that is disorders of platelets, disorders of coagulation, and vasculitis. These are not exclusive; if platelets and the factors involved in clotting have been destroyed, coagulation is disrupted. A disease impairs bone marrow function may restrict the body’s ability to make platelets and attack bone marrow, including leukemia, myeloma, and bone marrow tumors.

Symptoms of purpura

The main symptom of purpura is a purplish-red rash beneath the skin’s surface. The rash can appear anywhere on your body, including on the mucus membrane and mouth lining. The symptoms that sometimes accompany purpura can quickly identify its causes. Patients who experience purpura with any of the following symptoms should seek for their medical treatment:

  • Low platelet count may lead to increased bleeding after an injury, bleeding gums or nose, or blood in the urine.
  • Sore, swollen joints, particularly in the knees and ankles.
  • Gut problems such as nausea, vomiting, or stomach pain.
  • Kidney problems, particularly blood in the urine.

Treatments for purpura

Not all cases of purpura demand immediate treatments. When treatment is required, it is not due to the rash itself. Treatment is necessary for causes such as leukemia or effects including kidney failure.

Treatment for other forms of purpura centers around tackling the causes. This includes:

  1. Corticosteroids- These can help to increase the platelet count by reducing the activity of the immune system. The drug will be used for 2-6 weeks to ensure the platelet level. The side effects of using corticosteroids for an extended period include bone loss and weight gain.
  2. Intravenous immunoglobulin- If the purpura causes significant bleeding, it can help increase platelet levels. Its side effect includes nausea, fever, etc. The treatment usually is only effective in the short term.
  3. Romiplostim- This is the latest medication to treat ITP. They both encourage the bone marrow to release more platelets. Its side effects include headaches, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
  4. Rituximab- It helps to lower the immune response. It treats thrombocytopenic purpura and patients who do not respond to the corticosteroid. Its side effects include sore throat, low blood pressure, fever, and a rash. When a medical condition causes purpura, it cannot be cured; ongoing checking of platelet levels and organ functioning may be necessary.