Polyuria: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment


What Is Polyuria ( Excessive Urine Production)

The excessive passage of urine (at least 2.5 liters per day for an adult) as resulting in urinary frequency. It is a sign of diabetes mellitus that is under poor control. Polyuria is followed by increased frequency of urination but the two conditions are not always related since the underlying cause is different.

What Are The Causes Of Polyuroia?

There are different causes of polyuria which can be:

Diabetes Insipidus

Your body isn’t able to control its fluid level. So, you may feel thirsty no matter how much you drink. Diabetes insipidus can occur because of a kidney problem or a problem in the brain from surgery, a tumor, or also a head injury.


Mothers to be can also get gestational diabetes insipidus as it goes away when you are no longer pregnant.

Kidney disease

The damaged kidneys can not process as they are supposed to. It can be an untimely sign of kidney trouble.

Liver Damage

Problem with your liver can disturb your kidneys as your liver cannot process waste as it should do. Liver damage decreases the blood flow to kidneys so they can not do their activity properly.


Too much calcium in your blood can affect the levels of ADH of your kidney’s response to it which can also disturb the ways your kidneys proceed the urine.

Cushing’s Syndrome

It is a condition when you have excessive cortisol in your body. The extra cortisol affects the ADH a hormone involved in the production of hormones.


There is a link between anxiety and vasopressin. It is a substance that aids the kidney to hold onto water.

Alcohol And caffeine

It prevents your body from producing ADH whereas caffeine makes you urinate more.

What Are The Symptoms Of Polyuria?

The symptom of polyuria is excessive urination at regular intervals throughout the whole day and night. It is linked with excessive thirst and increased urination at night time. Other symptoms depending on the etiology are:

  1. Weight loss–  Rapid weight loss is a sign of Type I diabetes which is also a feature of CKD mad may also occur due to the dehydration arising from the diabetes insipidus.
  2. Malaise– Polyuria can cause dehydration causing malaise and fatigue.
  3. Headache– Pituitary tumors can lead to an increase in severe headaches due to a rise in pressure in the brain which is known to be intracranial pressure.
  4. Visual disturbance– Raised intracranial pressure due to brain tumor can cause swelling of the optic disc of the eye. A pituitary tumor leads to visual field defects.
  5. Blood pressure fluctuation– Polyuria causes dehydration which results in an increased heart rate or decrease in blood pressure due to posture. Increased ICP can cause increased blood pressure accompanied by decreased heart rate.

Diagnosing Polyuria

Your doctor may look at things in order to diagnose polyuria.


They will ask you about the amount of fluid your body makes and how often do you feel thirsty.


Your doctor will ask you when your symptoms begin and check on any treatments that could cause it like getting fluids, tube feeding, surgery, stroke, or head trauma.

Physical Exam

They will check for signs that you have diabetes as well as other mental and physical conditions linked with polyuria. They will observe swelling in your hands, feet, or also in the belly. They will look at things that cause diabetes insipidus like cancer, anti-depressants, as well as hypercalcemia.

Urine Test

Your doctor might use an 8, 12, or 24-hour test as you will get a container and you will pee into it over 24 hour period and take it back. When the 24 hours are up then go once again and add that urine and record the time to keep it cool until you can return it. A water deprivation test can help to decide how well your kidneys function when ADH is in your system and your weight and urine concentration will be tested a regular period of time.

Glucose Test

Your doctor will check blood sugar to see whether you have diabetes or not.


The treatment varies with the type of causes involved in sudden polyuria. In severe cases of dehydration, hospitalization is required. It helps to correct the fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Subsequent treatment is based on the reports and any confirmed cause of polyuria identified.