Otosclerosis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment And Prognosis.


What Is Otosclerosis?

Otosclerosis is an unusual bone growth in the middle ear that causes conductive hearing loss. Otosclerosis usually affects the last bone in the middle ear which is called stapes that are placed at the opening of the cochlea the organ that senses sound. With otosclerosis, the stapes can attach to the cochlea entrance and hinder the mechanical transfer of sound to the inner ear. Fixation affects stiffness enhancement of the ossicular chain. If the abnormal bone growth stretches into the inner ear which can also cause sensorineural hearing loss and alter your balance.

It is the most frequent cause of middle ear hearing loss in young adults. Otosclerosis typically occurs in early to mid-adulthood between 15 and 30 years. Otosclerosis is more typical in women than in men. It may affect one or both ears. Pregnancy can induce it to progress more rapidly.

Causes Of Otosclerosis

1)Genetic Predisposition

Most common among white people, rare among Asians, and remarkably rare in black people. Expected to occur histologically in 10% of the white population which resulted in conductive hearing loss in 1 %. It is doubly as frequent in females as in males. Most studies also support a pattern of autosomal dominant transmission with unfinished penetrance. There is proof to suggest that some cases may be linked to defects in the expression of the COL1A1 gene.

2) Measles

3) Autoimmune Disease

With hormonal autoimmunity to type II.

4) Biochemical  Abnormalities

Reactivation of the restricted secondary remodeling process within the cartilaginous rest areas part of the otic capsule.

What Are The Symptoms Of Otosclerosis?

Hearing loss, the most commonly reported symptom of otosclerosis, usually begins in one ear and then moves to the other. This injury may appear very gradually. Many people with otosclerosis first notice that they are incapable to hear low-pitched sounds or can’t hear a buzz. Some people may also experience dizziness, balance difficulties, or tinnitus. Tinnitus is a ringing, roaring, buzzing in the ears or head that sometimes happens with hearing loss,

How Is Otosclerosis Diagnosed?

It is diagnosed by the health care providers who are trained in hearing. These include an otolaryngologist (which is generally called ENT because they are a doctor who specializes in the condition of the ears, nose, throat, and neck), an otologist ( a doctor who specialize in disease of ears), or an audiologist ( a health care specialist qualified to identify and measure and treat hearing disorders). The first step in any analysis is to rule out other diseases or health obstacles that can cause the same symptoms as otosclerosis. The next steps include a hearing test that contains hearing sensitivity and middle ear sound conduction. Sometimes, imaging tests such as CT scans are also practiced to diagnose otosclerosis.

How Is Otosclerosis Treated?

Otosclerosis may gradually get worse. The condition may not require to be treated until you have more severe hearing problems. Using medication such as fluoride, calcium, or vitamin D may aid to show a hearing loss. However, the advantages of these treatments have not been yet confirmed.

A hearing aid may be applied to manage the loss of hearing. This will not correct or prevent hearing loss from getting more critical but it may help with symptoms. Surgery can cure or fix conductive hearing loss. Either all or part of one of the small middle ear bones following the eardrum is eliminated and replaced with a prosthesis.

  • A total replacement is called stapedectomy
  • Sometimes only part of the stapes is excluded and a small hole is made in the bottom of it which is called stapedotomy. Sometimes a laser is applied to help with the surgery.


Otosclerosis gets more serious without treatment. Surgery can replace some or all of your hearing loss. Pain, dizziness from the surgery passes away within a few weeks for most maximum people.

To decrease the risk of complication after surgery:

  • Do not inflate your nose for 2 to 3 weeks after surgery.
  • Avoid people with respiratory or additional infections.
  • Avoid twisting, lifting which may cause dizziness.
  • Avoid loud noises or unexpected pressure changes such as scuba diving. flying or driving in the mountains till you have healed.

If surgery does not operate, you may have total hearing loss. Treatment for total hearing loss involves developing skills to cope with deafness and managing hearing aids to transfer sounds from the nonhearing ear to the good ear.